Over the years I've compared many croissant recipes and tested out a number of them. I considered ingredient proportions, mixing and kneading times, numbers of folds/turns, resting and rising times and came up with the recipe and process that has worked well for me. So, you ask, why mess with (near) perfection?! Because life is all about learning!
As I read through Conticini's recipe for this laminated dough, I quickly developed a few concerns about some of his ingredient proportions and the kneading time he recommends. There is a higher ratio of butter to flour in this recipe than that which I typically use, and I prefer my croissants not too heavy in the butter department. Strike 1.
Pascal Pinaud taught me that the dough should be mixed ONLY until it comes together and NO MORE, so when I see a 5-minute kneading time, I start to worry. Strike 2.
The idea is to work the dough very little at the beginning, thus avoiding development of gluten at this stage. That will come later as you put the dough through its folds and turns, essentially kneading it with your rolling pin.
Conticini's recipe starts with making a poolisch which is a rough slurry of flour and liquid (water or milk) with yeast added.
I am certainly no expert on the use of a poolisch (also known as pre-ferment, biga or starter), but my understanding is that it is usually a ratio of 1 flour to 1 liquid by weight to which a tiny amount of yeast is added (0.1-0.2% of the weight of the flour). Since 90 gm flour is called for here, by using this rule, the amount of yeast added would only be a miniscule 0.1 gm - a teensy, weensy amount! This recipe calls for the equivalent of 6 gm instant yeast, or 60 times what would typically be used. Strike 3.
It is better if the pre-ferment sits for 6-24 hours (at room temp or into fridge if holding for up to 24 hours) before adding it into the final dough. This contributes to the flavor as well as the texture, crumb and structure of the end product. In this recipe it sits for 1.5 hours. Strike 4.
(Note: I normally make a détrempe (the croissant dough) with minimal mixing time, let it rest for 45 minutes at room temp and then into the fridge over night, tightly wrapped. My steps are otherwise similar to Philippe's recipe - beurrage, 3 single folds, final rolling, shaping, proofing and baking.)
For the poolisch simply mix the flour, milk and yeast, cover with plastic film and let sit at room temperature for 1.5 hours. In the future I would use a rubber spatula rather than a whisk - a MUCH easier tool from which to scrape the sticky dough.
|flour, salt, sugar in the bowl; butter ready to be softened or melted; milk; yeast|
|butter block 15 cm square|
|still pretty rough after a 5 minute knead, but a bit more together|
|after the 2 hours in the fridge|
On a lightly floured surface roll your dough out into an elongated diamond, large enough so you can place your butter block in the center and fold the corners of the dough over it, so as to fully encase it (sorry I forgot to take a picture of this!). You should have a neat package of dough and butter.
|You should feel the butter out to the edges of your dough package. Notice how rough the dough looks.|
Now for the turns: roll this package out to a length about 3 times its width and do a three fold (also called a single or business letter fold).
|rolled out, ready for the first fold|
|first three (or single) fold; dough turned to prepare for next fold|
Plan for a final one hour rest in the fridge before rolling the dough out for cutting and shaping.
So here is where I really knew that this would be a fiasco. As I continued to roll the dough for the turns, it remained stiff and difficult to roll. The dough started breaking down and butter showing through - NOT a good sign. Strike 6.
I did struggle through to the final shaping, although my doubts were rising exponentially.
|can you appreciate the butter showing through the dough?|
When rolling the dough out for final cutting and shaping, give it a rest every now and then. You want it to be nice and relaxed so it won't shrink up when you cut it.
|almost there - resting before achieving the 9" depth|
|marking my (almost) 4 inch sections|
|triangles cut, ready to be shaped|
I cut a slit in each base, pick up a triangle, give it a gentle stretch, then place it down and roll it up snugly, tugging gently at the tip as I roll. The tip goes DOWN on the baking sheet.
Here's a comparison:
|Philippe's recipe - a shiny, shaggy, buttery sort of mess|
|My recipe - smooth and nice - that's what I like to see!|
If you're baking the same day, give them a light egg wash and plan for a good 1.5-2 hour rise. Remember - your rising time will vary depending on the ambient temperature of your kitchen (e.g. hot summer day vs cool fall or winter day), the temperature of your dough (did you refrigerate it?) and the humidity.
I give my cold oven a whiff of warmth by turning it on briefly, then put a pan of hot water in the bottom of the oven to provide more warmth and humidity. The croissants LOVE that. Just don't put them in an environment where the temperature is above about 83-85 degrees. If too warm, the butter will start melting out and pool under your croissants.
What you'll see after a good rise is more prominence of the layers, and the croissants will jiggle when you gently shake the pan. The more butter in your dough, the heavier it will be, making the rise less prominent.
|Philippe's - layers more prominent, but it looks heavy and greasy|
|Mine - layers more prominent and it looks light and shiny|
REMEMBER: watch what is going on in your oven. Every oven is different (I'll say it again and again)!! I rotate and change positions of my sheet pans about half way through, and I gradually lower my oven temp throughout the baking time, depending on how my croissants are browning. I want the surface to be nicely browned and the laminated edges to be tan not pale, or I risk a croissant that's doughy inside.
|looks like a croissant chunk to me|
|heavy, bready center, some exterior fragility and flakiness, but feels heavy in the hand|
|The French Tarte - not bad - note the little browned shards as I cut. (Check out my separate post for a tasting of some Providence croissant offerings.)|
|nice airy lamination, exterior fragility, but still has a certain heft in the hand|
So if you want to make croissants, choose a recipe other than this one in Philippe Conticini's book and practice, practice, practice!
In a separate post I do a comparison and tasting of local Providence croissants. Check it out!